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Fashion ecommerce glossary

Please find below useful definitions for terms used in Fashion E-Commerce.




API stands for Application Programming Interface it allows ecommerce platforms to share data and functionality with other systems, such as inventory management systems, payment gateways, and shipping providers. This enables businesses to automate and streamline their operations, and to integrate their ecommerce platform with a wide range of other tools and services. For example, an ecommerce platform's API could allow a business to automatically update its inventory levels in real-time, or to process payments directly on the platform without redirecting customers to a separate payment gateway.


An Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a unique identifier assigned by Amazon to products listed on the company's website. An ASIN is a 10-character alphanumeric code, which is used to identify products on Amazon's platform. It is specific to the Amazon marketplace and it is not the same as a UPC or ISBN. Each ASIN corresponds to a single product, which can include multiple variations, such as different sizes or colours. ASINs are used by sellers to list their products on Amazon, by Amazon to track and manage inventory, and by customers to search for and purchase products on the site. ASINs can be used to reference a product in Amazon's API, customer service and order management system, and other internal Amazon tools.


AdWords is Google's advertising platform that allows businesses to create and display ads on Google's search engine results pages (SERPs), as well as on other websites that partner with Google to show ads. Advertisers can create text, display, video, and shopping ads and target them to specific audiences based on factors such as keywords, location, language, and device type. They can also set a budget for their campaigns and only pay when someone clicks on their ad. AdWords uses a pay-per-click (PPC) model, which means that advertisers bid on specific keywords that they want their ads to show up for when people search for those terms. The highest bidder gets the top ad spot. AdWords is a powerful and flexible platform that allows businesses of all sizes to reach a large audience and drive targeted traffic to their websites.

Affiliate marketing

A type of performance-based marketing in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought about by the affiliate's own marketing efforts.

AOV – Average Order Value

AOV stands for Average Order Value. In other words, the Average Spend per Customer per Order.

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A/B testing

A/B testing, also known as split testing or bucket testing, is a method of comparing two versions of an online feature against each other to determine which one performs better.


AI stands for Artificial Intelligence and is an area of computer science that focusses on the creation of intelligent processes.



B2B stands for Business-to-Business, transactions between companies, as opposed to between a company and individual consumer (B2C)


B2C stands for Business-to-Consumer, sales transactions between companies and individual consumers.


BFCM stands for Black Friday Cyber Monday

Black Friday

Black Friday is the Friday following Thanksgiving Day in the United States. It is considered the beginning of the Christmas shopping season and has become one of the busiest shopping days of the year. Many retailers offer significant discounts and promotions on this day, making it a popular time for consumers to purchase holiday gifts. It is called Black Friday because it is the day when retailers start turning a profit or "move into the black" for the year. In recent years, the term "Black Friday" has been used to refer to the entire holiday shopping season that starts on the day after Thanksgiving and continues through the end of the year. Many retailers now offer "Black Friday" sales and discounts that start online on Thanksgiving Day and continue through the weekend and beyond.

Brick and Mortar

Brick-and-mortar refers to a physical store or location where a business operates and sells products or services. It is a traditional type of retail business that has a physical presence and customers can visit the store, browse products and make purchases in person. The term "brick-and-mortar" comes from the fact that these types of businesses typically have a physical building, made of bricks, and customers can come in and shop inside the store (the "mortar"). In contrast to brick-and-mortar, an e-commerce business operates primarily online, and customers make purchases through a website or mobile application. Online only (pure play) retailers are starting to seek brick and mortar touchpoints with their customers in order to reach a wider customer base and give confidence how great their products are for the shoppers.

Bounce Rate

Percentage of visitors to a particular website who navigate away from the site after viewing only one page.



Content Management System (CMS) is a tool or software that allows users to create, manage, and publish digital content on a website or application.


Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a system used to manage and analyse interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects.


Cost per Acquisition (CPA) is a pricing model in which advertisers pay for each successful acquisition, such as a sale or lead.


Cost per Lead (CPL) is a pricing model in which advertisers pay for each lead generated by an advertisement.


Cost per Sale (CPS) is a pricing model in which advertisers pay for each sale resulting from an advertisement.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language. It is primarily used to separate the document's structure from its presentation, allowing the same content to be rendered in different styles on different devices or screen sizes.


Cost of goods sold (COGS) is a term used to refer to the direct costs of producing and selling a product or service. It includes the cost of materials and labour directly involved in the production of the goods, as well as any other direct costs such as freight and handling costs. COGS does not include indirect expenses such as overhead or administrative costs. For example, if a company is selling a product, the COGS would include the cost of materials used to make the product, the cost of labour to produce it, and the cost of any other direct expenses, such as packaging and shipping. It does not include the costs of maintaining the factory or office space, or the salaries of non-production employees. COGS is important for e-commerce businesses to calculate as it helps them determine the profitability of their products and services. By comparing the COGS to the selling price of a product, businesses can determine the gross profit margin, which is an important metric for evaluating the financial performance of a business. By monitoring their COGS, e-commerce businesses can make adjustments to their pricing and production methods to improve profitability.

Cyber Monday

Cyber Monday is a term used to describe a day of online shopping that typically takes place on the Monday after Thanksgiving, when retailers offer special deals and discounts to attract shoppers.

Sales Conversion Rate

Number of item sold compared to the number of product page description visits.



Direct-to-Consumer (D2C) is a business model in which a company sells its products or services directly to the end consumer, without the involvement of intermediaries like retail stores or wholesalers.

Digital native

In e-commerce, a digital native is an individual who is comfortable with online shopping and has grown up using technology and the internet to make purchases. They are likely to be tech-savvy, prefer online shopping over traditional brick-and-mortar stores and are more likely to use mobile devices for online shopping. Digital natives have different shopping habits and preferences compared to older generations. They are more likely to research products online before making a purchase, use social media to discover new products, and prefer to shop on mobile devices.

Digital native companies

Digital native companies are companies that were born in the digital era and have digital technology at their core. They are often characterised by a business model that is based on the internet and mobile technology, and they usually have a more agile and customer-centric approach. They are also known as pure-play companies, as they operate exclusively through their own website or mobile application and don't have physical stores.



eCommerce, or electronic commerce, refers to the buying and selling of goods or services over the internet.


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a software system that helps businesses manage and automate various aspects of their operations, such as accounting, inventory, human resources, customer relationship management and other business processes across an entire organization. It typically includes modules for financial management, supply chain management, manufacturing, project management, and more. ERP systems provide a centralized database that stores data from various business functions, allowing different departments to access and share information in real-time. This helps organizations streamline their operations, improve efficiency, and make better-informed decisions. An ERP system is used by businesses of all sizes across a wide range of industries, including retail. ERP systems can be implemented as on-premise software, cloud-based software or a hybrid of both. Cloud-based ERP systems are becoming more popular as they offer businesses more flexibility, scalability and cost-effectiveness as they eliminate the need for hardware and software maintenance, upgrades and backups.



Fulfilment refers to the process of receiving, packaging, and shipping orders to customers.


Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) is the emotional state of wanting to be a part of something, typically driven by social media or advertising, that is perceived as desirable or exciting.


File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another over the internet. FTP is a client-server protocol where an FTP client establishes a connection to an FTP server, and then the client can upload or download files to or from the server. FTP is widely used to upload and download files to and from a web server, it also allows users to create and delete directories, and to move, rename, and delete files. FTP uses two channels, one for sending commands and the other for sending data. The commands channel is used to establish the connection and authenticate the user, while the data channel is used to transfer the files. FTP can be used in both active and passive mode, and it can transfer files in both ASCII and binary mode. FTP is considered an insecure protocol, as it sends login credentials and data in clear text, and it is recommended to use SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) or FTPS (FTP Secure) which are more secure alternatives that encrypt the communication.


Gross Margin

Gross margin is a financial metric that measures the profitability of a business by calculating the difference between the cost of goods sold (COGS) and the revenue generated from the sale of those goods. It is typically expressed as a percentage of the revenue. The formula for gross margin is: Gross Margin = (Revenue - COGS) / Revenue * 100. For example, if a business generates 100,000 EUR in revenue and has 60,000 EUR in COGS, the gross margin would be 40%. This means that the business has a profit of 40% on every EUR of revenue generated. Gross margin is an important metric for e-commerce businesses as it indicates how much profit they are making on each sale. High gross margin means that the business is able to generate a significant profit on each sale and can afford to invest in marketing and other growth strategies. A low gross margin can indicate that the business is not pricing its products or services correctly or is not efficiently managing its costs.


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)

HTML is a markup language used to create the structure and layout of web pages.

Headless Commerce (HC)

HC refers to the separation of the front-end customer-facing interface and the back-end system of an e-commerce platform. In a traditional e-commerce platform, the front-end and back-end are tightly integrated, meaning that changes to one side of the platform often require changes to the other side. In a headless commerce setup, the front-end is decoupled from the back-end, allowing businesses to use different technologies for each. This allows businesses to easily update their front-end customer-facing interface without affecting the back-end system and vice versa. The front-end in a headless commerce setup is typically built using technologies such as React, Vue or Angular, and it is connected to the back-end through an API (Application Programming Interface) which allows it to fetch data from the back-end and render it on the front-end. This allows for greater flexibility, scalability, and faster time to market for businesses, as they can easily make changes and updates to their front-end without affecting the back-end system. Headless commerce is becoming increasingly popular as it allows businesses to create personalised, highly interactive shopping experiences across multiple channels and devices, such as mobile, web, and in-store.



Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that provides internet access to customers, typically through a wired or wireless connection.



JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a lightweight data-interchange format that is easy for humans to read and write, and easy for machines to parse and generate. It is based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language, Standard ECMA-262 3rd Edition - December 1999. JSON is a text format that is completely language-independent but uses conventions that are familiar to programmers of the C family of languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, Python, and many others. JSON is often used to transmit data between a server and a web application, or between different parts of a web application. It is also commonly used in APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) to exchange data between systems. JSON data is represented as a collection of key-value pairs, where the keys are strings and the values can be strings, numbers, booleans, arrays, or other JSON objects. JSON is very similar to JavaScript objects, but it is a separate format and can be used in many different programming languages. JSON is a widely adopted standard for data interchange format as it is lightweight, easy to parse, and can be easily integrated with other technologies. JSON is also supported by most of the programming languages like python, javascript, java, C#, Ruby and many others.


Jira is a software development tool used for issue tracking and project management.


JS is an abbreviation for JavaScript, a programming language that is primarily used to create interactive front-end web applications. JavaScript is a client-side scripting language, which means it runs directly in the user's web browser and doesn't require a connection to a server to execute. JavaScript was first developed in 1995 by Brendan Eich at Netscape, and it quickly became the standard programming language for creating dynamic web pages. Today, JavaScript is used not only to create interactive web pages but also to build complex web and mobile applications, server-side applications, and even desktop applications. JavaScript allows developers to create complex interactions, animations, and dynamic content on web pages. It can also be used to validate user input, create cookies, and communicate with a server using AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) to create a more responsive web experience. JavaScript is a versatile language, it can be used for a wide range of purposes, such as: Making web pages more interactive, Creating games and visualisations, Building browser extensions, Building mobile apps using frameworks like React Native and Ionic, Building server-side applications using Node.js, Building real-time applications with WebSockets, Building desktop apps using Electron, Building command-line tools and scripts. It also has a large and active developer community that creates and maintains a wide variety of open-source JavaScript libraries and frameworks that can be used to speed up development and reduce the amount of code you need to write.


K-fold Cross-validation

K-fold cross-validation is a technique used to evaluate the performance of a machine learning model. The goal of cross-validation is to estimate the performance of a model on unseen data, by training the model on a subset of the available data and evaluating its performance on a different, hold-out subset of the data.

In K-fold cross-validation, the data is divided into k equal-sized "folds". The model is then trained and evaluated k times, with a different fold of the data used as the evaluation set in each iteration. In each iteration, k-1 folds are used as the training set, and the remaining fold is used as the evaluation set. The performance of the model is then averaged across all k iterations to give an estimate of its performance on unseen data.

The main advantage of K-fold cross-validation is that it makes efficient use of the data, as each example is used for both training and evaluation. This can be particularly useful when the amount of data is limited.

The value of k should be chosen based on the size of the data set: a larger value of k will result in a larger training set and a smaller evaluation set, which can lead to a more robust estimate of the model's performance, but it also increases the computation time. Common values for k include 5 and 10.

K-fold cross-validation is a widely used technique to evaluate the performance of machine learning models and to select the best model and its hyperparameters. It is also used to prevent overfitting, which occurs when a model is too complex and performs well on the training data but poorly on new unseen data.


The k-nearest neighbours (KNN) algorithm is a type of instance-based and supervised learning algorithm that can be used for classification and regression tasks. The algorithm works by identifying the k number of training examples that are closest in distance to a given test example, and then using the majority class or average value of those k nearest neighbours to make a prediction.

The KNN algorithm is based on the idea that similar data points are likely to have similar class labels. It uses a distance metric to measure the similarity between the test example and the training examples. Common distance metrics include Euclidean distance, Manhattan distance, and cosine similarity.

The value of k is a hyperparameter that needs to be chosen by the user. A small value of k will result in a model that is more sensitive to noise and outliers, while a larger value of k will result in a model that is more robust but less sensitive to individual data points. An optimal value of k can be found by using techniques like cross-validation.

KNN is a simple and efficient algorithm that can be used for both classification and regression tasks, and it can be used with both continuous and categorical variables. It is a non-parametric algorithm, meaning that it makes no assumptions about the underlying probability distribution of the data. However, the algorithm can be computationally expensive, especially when dealing with large datasets.


Key performance indicator. In other words an indicator that allows to measure how successful activity is/was.



Lifetime Value (LTV) is a prediction of the net profit attributed to the entire future relationship with a customer. It is a key metric used in e-commerce and other businesses to estimate the value of a customer over their entire time as a customer. LTV is often used to determine the maximum amount of money that a business can afford to spend on acquiring a new customer (customer acquisition cost, CAC) and still make a profit. LTV is calculated by multiplying the average purchase value by the average purchase frequency rate and then by the average customer lifespan. By calculating LTV, businesses can make data-driven decisions about customer acquisition, retention, and marketing strategies. Businesses can use LTV to identify their most valuable customers and target their marketing efforts accordingly. LTV can also be used to identify the lifetime value of a customer segment and compare it to the cost of acquiring a customer in that segment. LTV is a key metric for e-commerce businesses, as it helps them to understand the value of customer retention and lifetime customer value, which can be used to make informed decisions about marketing and customer acquisition strategies.


Landing Page Optimization (LPO) is the process of improving the elements on a landing page to increase its conversion rate. A landing page is the web page that a user "lands" on after clicking on a link, usually an advertisement or a search engine result. The goal of LPO is to design and test different versions of a landing page to see which one performs best in terms of driving conversions. In LPO, businesses optimise different elements of the landing page, such as the headlines, images, copy, and call-to-action (CTA) buttons, to see which elements have the most impact on conversion rates. They also test different layouts, colours, and placement of elements to see which combination produces the highest conversion rate. Common techniques used in LPO include A/B testing and multivariate testing. LPO can be used to optimise different types of landing pages, such as product pages, lead generation pages, and thank you pages. By continually testing and optimising landing pages, businesses can improve the user experience, increase conversions, and drive more revenue. In e-commerce, Landing Page Optimization can be used to optimise the product page and improve the conversion rate of the product page, which can lead to increased sales. By using LPO, businesses can increase the effectiveness of their online marketing campaigns by making sure that the landing pages are optimised to convert visitors into customers.



Machine Learning (ML) is a subfield of artificial intelligence that uses algorithms to enable a computer to learn from data, without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning algorithms use statistical models and computer algorithms to analyse and understand data, and make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed.

There are three main types of machine learning:

Supervised Learning: where the algorithm is trained on a labelled dataset, meaning the dataset contains input-output pairs and the algorithm learns to predict the output given a new input. Unsupervised Learning: where the algorithm is trained on an unlabeled dataset, meaning the dataset contains only inputs and the algorithm must find patterns and structure in the data. Reinforcement Learning: where the algorithm learns from the feedback of its actions, it receives rewards or penalties for certain actions, and it learns to optimise its actions to maximise the rewards over time. There are various applications of machine learning in e-commerce such as:

  1. Product recommendation
  2. Search and navigation
  3. Pricing optimization
  4. Inventory management
  5. Fraud detection
  6. Customer segmentation
  7. Personalization
Machine learning algorithms can be divided into two main categories: parametric and non-parametric. Parametric models have a fixed number of parameters, and the model is chosen based on the data. Non-parametric models do not have a fixed number of parameters and can adapt to the data.

Machine learning is a rapidly growing field, and new techniques and algorithms are being developed all the time. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on many other fields, including statistics, computer science, and mathematics, and it has the potential to revolutionise many industries, including e-commerce.


Neural Network

Neural networks are a set of convolutional algorithms, modeled loosely after the human brain, that are designed to recognize patterns.


Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a customer loyalty metric that measures the likelihood of a customer to recommend a company's product or service to others. It is based on a single question survey that asks customers to rate their likelihood of recommending the company to a friend or colleague on a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 is not at all likely and 10 is extremely likely. Customers are then grouped into three categories: Promoters (9-10 rating) are customers who are most likely to recommend the company, Passives (7-8 rating) are customers who are neutral about the company, Detractors (0-6 rating) are customers who are least likely to recommend the company. The NPS is then calculated by subtracting the percentage of Detractors from the percentage of Promoters. A positive NPS score indicates that the company has more Promoters than Detractors, while a negative NPS score indicates the opposite. A score of 0 means that the percentage of Promoters and Detractors is the same. NPS is widely used as a benchmark for customer loyalty, and it is often used to track customer satisfaction over time and to compare the performance of different products, services, or customer segments. NPS can be used to identify areas of strength and weakness in a company's customer relationships, and to identify opportunities for improvement.



Order Management System (OMS) is a software system that manages the entire process of receiving, processing, and fulfilling customer orders in e-commerce.



Product Detail Page (PDP) is a web page that provides detailed information about a specific product or service.


PPC (Pay-Per-Click) is a type of online advertising where businesses pay a fee each time one of their ads is clicked. PPC ads are typically displayed on search engines, such as Google and Bing, and on social media platforms, such as Facebook and Instagram. Businesses create ads and bid on keywords that they want their ads to show up for when people search for those terms. The cost of PPC advertising is determined by the bid amount, the relevance and the quality of the ad, and the ad's performance. PPC can be a cost-effective way for e-commerce businesses to generate sales, leads, and website traffic.


Point of Sale (POS) is a system used to process sales transactions in a physical retail store, also known as till or cash register.


Product Information Management (PIM) is a system used to manage and distribute product information across multiple channels, including e-commerce websites, and mobile apps. PIM systems are used to collect, store, and distribute product information such as product names, descriptions, images, pricing, and availability. They provide a single source of truth for product information, ensuring that all channels have access to the most up-to-date and accurate information. PIM systems typically include features such as data normalisation, data validation, and data enrichment. Data normalisation ensures that product data is consistent across different channels, and data validation ensures that product data is accurate and complete. Data enrichment is the process of adding additional information to product data, such as product images, videos, and customer reviews. PIM systems can also include advanced features such as product categorization, product hierarchy, and product relationships. Product categorization is the process of grouping products into categories, such as shoes, clothing, and electronics. Product hierarchy is the process of organising products into a hierarchical structure, such as by brand, product line, and product category. Product relationships are used to link related products together, such as accessories or complementary products. PIM systems can help e-commerce businesses to improve their product data management by providing a centralised location to store, manage and distribute product information, which can improve the shopping experience and increase sales. PIM can also help businesses to improve their product data management and reduce the time and cost of maintaining product information across multiple channels.

Pure play

In e-commerce, a pure-play e-commerce company is an online retailer that operates exclusively through its own website or mobile application. They don't have physical stores and rely solely on the internet to reach their customers and sell their products. They typically have a specific niche or focus and they specialise in a particular category of products or services. Pure-play e-commerce companies are also known as "digital natives" because they were founded and have grown during the digital era, and have been able to take advantage of the latest e-commerce technologies, such as personalization and automation, to improve the customer experience. Pure-play e-commerce companies are different from "clicks-and-mortar" companies which have both physical stores and an online presence. Pure-play companies can have certain advantages over traditional brick-and-mortar retailers. For example, because they don't have the overhead costs of maintaining physical stores, they can often offer lower prices, and they can also be more agile in responding to changes in consumer behaviour and technology.



Quality Assurance, a process used to check or test if product or work quality meets the set expectations.


QQuarter over Quarter, a comparison of a metric from one quarter to the same quarter in the last year



Return on Investment (ROI) is a financial metric used to measure the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. The formula to calculate ROI is: (Gain from Investment - Cost of Investment) / Cost of Investment. ROI can be expressed as a percentage, and it represents the amount of return on an investment, relative to the investment's cost. A positive ROI means that the investment has generated a profit, while a negative ROI means that the investment has resulted in a loss. It is a useful metric for evaluating the performance of an ecommerce business. In e-commerce, ROI is a way to measure the effectiveness of a website or software as a service by calculating the revenue generated per Great British Pound spent on it. A high ROI indicates that the investment is generating a good return, while a low ROI indicates that the investment is not performing well.


Revenue on ad spend is a key performance indicator in digital marketing.



SERP stands for Search Engine Results Page. It is the page that appears when a user enters a query into a search engine, such as Google or Bing. The SERP includes a list of relevant websites, images, videos and other information that the search engine has determined to be the most relevant to the user's query. In ecommerce, businesses aim to rank high in SERP for their targeted keywords, as it can drive a lot of targeted traffic to their website. The higher a website is ranked on the SERP, the more visibility it will have to users searching for related products or services. Ecommerce businesses can improve their ranking in SERP by using SEO (Search Engine Optimization) techniques, such as optimising their website's content and technical structure, building backlinks, and creating high-quality, relevant content. They can also use paid advertising methods like PPC (Pay-Per-Click) to secure a spot on the SERP.


Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the process of optimising a website or online store to improve its visibility and ranking in search engine results pages (SERPs).


Social Media Marketing (SMM) is the process of promoting a product, service, or brand on social media platforms, such as Tik Tok, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.


Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software delivery model where the software is hosted by a third-party provider and made available to customers over the internet.


A Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) is a unique identifier assigned to a product by a retailer or supplier for inventory management purposes. It is used to track and identify individual products within a company's inventory. Each product within a company's inventory will have a unique SKU assigned to it. A SKU is typically composed of several parts, each of which conveys specific information about the product. For example, a SKU for a t-shirt might include information such as the t-shirt's size, colour, and style. This information is often encoded into the SKU in a standardised format, making it easy to read and understand. SKUs are used in e-commerce to track inventory levels and to identify products in the warehouse, in the store, or in the ecommerce platform. They are also used for order tracking, invoicing, and for generating purchase orders. They allow retailers to manage their inventory and stock levels more efficiently, and to keep track of which products are selling well and which ones are not. SKUs can also be used to track pricing, promotions, and discounts. By using different SKUs for different pricing or promotion strategies, retailers can easily track the effectiveness of these strategies and make adjustments as needed. Overall, SKU is a crucial aspect of inventory management and supply chain management in ecommerce, and it allows companies to track inventory levels, sales, and customer demand, which in turn helps them to make better business decisions.

Singles day

Singles Day is a Chinese shopping holiday that takes place on November 11th every year. The name "Singles Day" comes from the date 11/11, which has four "ones" (or "singles"), representing being single. The holiday has been celebrated in China since the 1990s as a day for single people to treat themselves and buy things for themselves. In recent years, Singles Day has evolved into a massive shopping event, with retailers offering major discounts and promotions on a wide range of products. Online marketplaces such as Alibaba's Tmall and JD.com, have turned it into the world's largest shopping event, surpassing Black Friday and Cyber Monday in terms of sales. Singles Day has become an opportunity for retailers to boost their sales and reach new customers, both in China and internationally. Many international brands and retailers now participate in Singles Day sales, making it a global shopping event. Singles Day is also considered as an opportunity for consumers to buy things they need or want and treat themselves. It has become a cultural phenomenon in China, with many people looking forward to the day for discounts on everything from clothes to electronics and home goods.



Top-of-the-funnel (TOFU): The early stage of the marketing and sales funnel, where potential customers are first made aware of a product or service.


Tokenization: The process of replacing sensitive data with a unique, non-sensitive value, known as a token, to enhance security.


Third-party logistics (3PL): The use of external companies to manage logistics and supply chain operations.


Touchpoint: Any point of interaction between a customer and a brand, such as a website, email, or store visit.



User Interface (UI) refers to the elements of a website or application that users interact with, such as buttons, menus, and text fields.


User Experience (UX) refers to the overall experience of a user when interacting with a website or application, including factors such as ease of use, navigation, and design.


Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is the address of a website or web page that is used to access it over the internet.


Urchin Tracking Module (UTM) is a simple code that can be added to the end of a URL in order to track the effectiveness of online marketing campaigns, such as email, social media and paid search.


Unique Selling Proposition (USP) is a unique feature or benefit of a product or service that sets it apart from its competitors.


Upselling is the practice of encouraging customers to purchase related or higher-priced products or services. The goal of upselling is to increase the value of a customer's purchase, either by selling them a higher-priced version of the product they are currently interested in or by selling them additional products or services that complement their purchase. Upselling can be done in a number of ways, such as suggesting a more expensive version of the product a customer is looking at on an e-commerce website, offering add-ons or upgrades at checkout, or providing personalised recommendations based on a customer's browsing history or purchase history. Upselling can be an effective way for e-commerce businesses to increase their revenue and profitability, as it allows them to sell more products and services to existing customers without having to acquire new customers. It can also improve the customer experience by offering them products or services that are more tailored to their needs and interests. However, it's important to ensure that upselling is done in an ethical and customer-focused way, and not to be pushy or manipulative. It's important to provide clear information and to be transparent about the additional costs, and to make sure that the upselling offer is relevant to the customer and of value to them, otherwise it could be perceived as a negative experience.


Visual search

Visual search is a technology that allows users to search for products by uploading an image or taking a picture, rather than using keywords. This technology uses image recognition to identify specific features of the image and match it to similar products available for purchase. Visual search can be done through a mobile device camera, a computer webcam, or by uploading an image from the user's device. It can be used for various types of products, such as clothing, furniture, home decor and more. Visual search technology is becoming more popular in e-commerce as it allows customers to search for products by providing a visual representation of what they are looking for, rather than having to rely on text-based search queries. This can make the search process more efficient and accurate, especially for items that are hard to describe with keywords, such as patterns, colours or shapes. Overall, visual search is a powerful tool for e-commerce businesses, as it allows them to better understand and serve the needs of their customers, and to improve the customer experience by making it easier for them to find the products they are looking for. it's important to ensure that upselling is done in an ethical and customer-focused way, and not to be pushy or manipulative. It's important to provide clear information and to be transparent about the additional costs, and to make sure that the upselling offer is relevant to the customer and of value to them, otherwise it could be perceived as a negative experience.



White-label: A product or service that is produced by one company but is sold under another company's brand.


Wishlist: A feature on ecommerce platforms that allows customers to save products for future purchase.

Workflow automation

Workflow automation is the use of technology to automate repetitive tasks and processes in an organisation. This can include tasks such as data entry, document management, email marketing, inventory management, and customer service. The goal of workflow automation is to increase efficiency, reduce errors, and improve overall organisational performance. In ecommerce, workflow automation can help to streamline various business processes, such as order processing, inventory management, and customer service. For example, an ecommerce platform could use workflow automation to automatically send out order confirmation emails, update inventory levels, and send out shipping notifications. This can save time, reduce errors, and improve the overall customer experience. Workflow automation can be achieved through the use of various tools such as software, scripts, and bots. These tools can be programmed to perform specific tasks, such as sending out email campaigns, updating customer data, or tracking inventory levels. They can also be integrated with other systems, such as customer relationship management (CRM) software, to automate and streamline business processes. Overall, workflow automation is an important aspect of ecommerce, as it allows businesses to operate more efficiently, reduce costs and improve the customer experience.



XML: Extensible Markup Language, a markup language used for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.


X-axis: The horizontal axis on a graph, often used to display time or other numerical data.


X-commerce: A business model that combines the benefits of e-commerce and brick-and-mortar retailing.



Year-over-year (YOY): A comparison of a metric (such as revenue or profits) from one year to the same period in the previous year.


Y-Axis: The vertical axis on a graph, often used to display numerical data or values.


Y-disruption: A term to describe the disruption that technology has brought to the retail industry.



Z-generation: A term used to describe individuals born in the late 1990s and early 2000s, who are considered to be digital natives.

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